[61] For once, Marius was unprepared for action and in the melee all he could do was form defensive circles. "[104][105] At the same time, Marius' consular colleague, Manius Aquillius, defeated the Sicilian slave revolt in the Second Servile War. [70] There, he captured the town community of Tolosa (modern day Toulouse), where he discovered a great treasure cache called the Gold of Tolosa, believed to be stolen from the Greek temple of Delphi. In his youth he served in the army and was characterized with bravery at the time of the Numantian War, when Scipio Aelimilianus turned his attention to the young Marius. Sallust tells us that he was unknown by sight to the electors but was returned by all the tribes on the basis of his accomplishments. Cite This Work The town had been conquered by the Romans in the late 4th century BC and was initially given Roman citizenship without voting rights (Civitas sine suffragio). Before long, Marius exacted stinging defeats upon the Jugurthine coalition, which left tens of thousands of Rome’s foes slain and applied pressure on the Numidian’s allies. Roman general and politician, consul seven times (107, 104-100, 86 BC), who was the first Roman to illustrate the political support that a successful general could derive from the votes of his old army veterans. All of this was to create the illusion his forces were larger than they really were. He had instructed his legionaries to stand their ground on the hill, launch javelins, draw their swords, guard themselves with their shields and thrust the enemy back. Saturninus, after assassinating one of his political opponents to the tribunate,[106] pushed for bills that would: drive his former commanding officer Metellus Numidicus into exile,[106][108] lower the price of wheat distributed by the state,[109] and give colonial lands to the veterans of Marius's recent war. At this point Marius re-organized a few detachments, and led a column of 2,000 men through the Numidans and linked up with Metellus. Caught off guard by Sulla's cavalry, pinned down by Catulus' infantry and flanked by Marius, the Cimbri were slaughtered and the survivors enslaved. Then he set out to confront Jugurtha. [55], Seeking troops to bolster the forces in Numidia and win his promised quick victory, Marius found Rome's traditional manpower reserves to be depleted. Written by Marc Hyden, published on 09 October 2017 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Roman general, statesman and military reformer, Marcus Marius was a few years younger than Gaius Marius. [29] Due to his success in Spain, Marius almost certainly returned to Rome in 113 BC with his personal wealth greatly enlarged. After election, he likely served Quintus Caecilius Metellus Balearicus on the Balearic Islands helping him win a triumph. Caepio's disdain for Mallius – a new man like Marius and hunger for glory – made it impossible for them to cooperate. When Q. Caecilius Metellus Numidicus was sent to Africa in 109 to deal with Jugurtha, he chose Marius as a member of his staff, perhaps to placate equestrian and Italian interests. As a result, his legacy suffered - but was Marius a hero or a villain? [165] However, this development did not emerge from Marius. When Sulla returned from defeating Mithridates, he initiated an unrestrained massacre, and he ordered his subordinates to exhume Marius’ decaying remains, whereby they were abused and discarded as odious trash. One of the major arguments for these land reforms was to rebuild the manpower pool from which the legions recruited. "Gaius Marius." Over Metellus's objections he returned to Rome to run for the consulship for 107. He was murdered on the orders of Mark Antony following the assassination of Julius Caesar At an early age, he entered Rome’s legions and served with integrity. Only in 188 BC, thirty years before his birth, did the town receive full citizenship. The Romans had to fight Jugurtha in the desert where the Numidian light cavalry had an advantage. The Julii had done so only once in the 2nd century, in 157 BC. Gaius Marius, (born c. 157 bce, Cereatae, near Arpinum [Arpino], Latium [now in Italy]—died January 13, 86 bce, Rome), Roman general and politician, consul seven times (107, 104–100, 86 bce), who was the first Roman to illustrate the political support that a successful general could derive from the votes of his old army veterans. [6][4][7] While many of the problems he faced in his early career in Rome show the difficulties that faced a "new man" (novus homo) in being accepted into the stratified upper echelons of Roman society, Marius – even as a young man – was not poor or even middle class, he was most assuredly born into inherited wealth gained, most likely, from large land holdings. [100] Meeting with the Cimbri, the invading tribesmen threatened the Romans with the advance of the Teutones and Ambrones. Gaius Marius comes from a latin family, that lived in a village close to the town of Arpinum. Marius narrowly escaped capture and death on several occasions and eventually found safety in Africa. [47] He also won over the Italian traders by claiming that he could capture Jugurtha in a few days with half Metellus's troops. He was at the centre of a paradigmatic shift from the militia levies of the middle Republic to the professional soldiery of the late Republic; he also improved the pilum, a javelin, and made large-scale changes to the logistical structure of the Roman army.[1]. [57] And again, with the threat of the Cimbri, he was granted another exemption. Instead of baggage trains, Marius had his troops carry all their weapons, blankets, clothes, and rations. Then, by parlaying his relationships with influential Romans and expounding his honorable military service, he entered the political arena and climbed the political ladder, the cursus honorum. Gender: Male Race or Ethnicity: White Occupation: Military, Politician. The People's Assembly was nervous enough about the Cimbric threat and disunity in command to reelect Marius to three successive consulships (in 104, in 103 and in 102 BC). Ancient History Encyclopedia. Consequently, Marius aided Cinna, and before long Cinna’s co-consul was outmaneuvered and was forced to surrender, allowing Marius and Cinna to both re-enter Rome. But Sulla had clearly been immediately responsible and had a signet ring made for himself commemorating the event. Then, after being re-elected as consul for 101 BCE, Marius clashed with the Cimbri and systematically massacred them, ending the long-running conflict. For his victory over invading Germanic tribes in the Cimbrian War, he was dubbed "the third founder of Rome". [5] Although Plutarch claims that Marius' father was a labourer, this is almost certainly false since Marius had connections with the nobility in Rome, he ran for local office in Arpinum, and he had marriage relations with the local nobility in Arpinum, which all combine to indicate that he was born into a locally important family of equestrian status. [151], Marius along with his son then returned from exile in Africa to Etruria with an army he had raised there and placed themselves under consul Cinna's command to oust Octavius. In 91 BC, Marcus Livius Drusus was elected tribune and proposed a greater division of state lands, the enlargement of the Senate, and a conferral of Roman citizenship upon all freemen of Italy. Seeking to use them, and with precedent for waiving the property requirements during the existential crisis that was the Second Punic War, Marius was exempted from the requirements. Following the Cimbric War, Marius returned to Rome to a thankful populace who considered him one of Rome’s founders and awarded him with his second magnificent triumph, and they even ritually offered libations to him. No longer would only mobs clash in the streets of Rome. The Romans gained the initiative and the Numidians had no choice but to withdraw. [114][115] Glaucia too was dragged from his house and killed in the street. [74] While his election was not unprecedented, as Quintus Fabius Maximus had been elected for consecutive consulships[75] and it was not unheard of for consuls to be elected in absentia, it certainly was not with recent precedent. Before departing a second time to confront Mithridates, Sulla declared Marius an enemy of the state, placed a bounty on his head, and sentenced him to die. Marius was defeated and fled Rome. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 09 Oct 2017. [61] Marius then marched east to winter quarters in Cirta. [146] Marius was defeated and fled Rome. Examples of this are the extortion and treason courts set up by Saturninus and Gaius Mamilius'. [153] Their heads were exhibited in the Forum. The town had been conquered by the Romans in the late 4th century BC and was given Roman citizenship without voting rights. [83] Lacking a decisive conclusion to the Cimbrian conflict over the last two years, it was not a foregone conclusion that Marius would win reelection. The match was advantageous to both sides: Marius gained respectability by marrying into a patrician family and the Julii received a great injection of energy and money. While political violence had been increasingly normalised throughout the middle and late Republic, starting with the murder of the Gracchi brothers, the passage of the senatus consultum ultimum against Saturninus and Glaucia in Marius' sixth consulship normalised the use of force not only against private citizens, but also "against properly elected magistrates in order to preserve [the Senate's] own position".[167]. First, Marius had to deal with the Teutones and their allies the Ambrones, who were in the province of Narbonensis marching toward the Alps. [57], Marius, however, in his successive consulships, also overhauled the training and logistical organisation of his men. However, the well-conditioned and disciplined legionaries slowly and systematically forced the tribal horde down the hill until both the Romans and barbarians were on level ground. During this period Cinna enacted economic reforms and began enforcement of the Sulpician voting rights measure. In 104 BC, Marius was returned as consul again for 103 BC. He assured his men that since the barbarians would be charging uphill their footing would be unsure and they would be vulnerable. Gaius Marius. Then, by parlaying his relatio… [71] While Caepio was prorogued into the next year, the new consul for 105 BC Gnaeus Mallius Maximus,[72] was also assigned to southern Gaul with another army. Teutobod, the Teutonic king, and 3,000 warriors escaped the battle only to be caught by the Sequani who handed them over to Marius. [48], In early 109 BC, a detachment of Roman soldiers serving as the garrison of Vaga was ambushed and cut down almost to a man. In the interim, he married a patrician woman named Julia who later boasted a famous nephew, Julius Caesar, but Marius’ intermission from public life was short-lived. As the Social War appeared to conclude, King Mithridates of Pontus emerged as Rome’s most dire threat, and Marius greatly wished to lead Rome’s legions against the pugnacious monarch. Caepio's routed men crashed into Mallius' troops, which led to both armies being pinned against the River Rhône and annihilated by the numerically dominant Cimbrian warriors.[72]. https://www.ancient.eu/Gaius_Marius/. Books In fact, Marius "won office after office, always so conducting himself in each of them as to be regarded worthy of a higher position than that which he was holding" (Sallust, The War with Jugurtha, 63.5). Yet, Sulla was ultimately given the Mithridatic command. Only in 188 BC, thirty years before his birth, did the town receive full citizenship. Marius narrowly escaped capture and death on several occasions and eventually found safety with his veterans in Africa. [113] Possibly with Marius' implied consent, an angry mob broke into the building and, by dislodging the roof tiles and throwing them at the prisoners below, lynched those inside. [57], Marius found that ending the war was more difficult than he had claimed. The answer is nuanced. The battle continued for much of the morning, with neither side gaining the upper hand. Marius was born in 157 BC in the town of Arpinum in southern Latium. While preparing to head to Africa to clash with Jugurtha, he enlisted Romans of all classes into his army, including the poor. It seems that the minimum qualification for the fifth census class (the lowest one eligible for military service) was lowered from 11,000 to 3000 sesterces of property, and already in 109 BC the consuls had had to seek suspension of Gaius Gracchus' restrictions on the levy. At one point Marius had to flee Rome in order to escape being executed by Sulla. Julia (c. 130 BC – 69 BC) was a daughter of praetor Gaius Julius Caesar II (grandfather of Caesar) and Marcia (daughter of praetor Quintus Marcius Rex).She was a sister of Gaius Julius Caesar III (the father of Julius Caesar) and Sextus Julius Caesar III, consul in 91 BC.. At about 110 BC she married Gaius Marius; as a result, she is sometimes referred to as Julia Maria. The wealthy continued to try to influence the voting by inspecting ballots and Marius passed a law narrowing the passages down which voters passed to cast their votes in order to prevent outsiders from harassing the electors. Once he was in office in 100 BCE, he continued an ill-advised alliance with unscrupulous politicians, including Saturninus who ultimately revolted against the state. 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